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Architectural Review: City’s famous golden stone needs repair, protection

Story by Ian Debevoise // Photos by Maria Amasanti

SALAMANCA – Like many squares in Spanish cities, the Plaza Mayor is Salamanca’s epicenter, but there’s an element that distinguishes this centerpiece from those found in any other city in the country.

The City Hall of Salamanca, in the heart of the Plaza Mayor, is made completely out of the Villamayor stone. Salamanca has been dubbed the "Golden City" for the warm glow created by the sun's reflection on the stone.

The City Hall of Salamanca, in the heart of the Plaza Mayor, is made completely out of the Villamayor stone. Salamanca has been dubbed the “Golden City” for the warm glow created by the sun’s reflection on the stone.

Famously known as the “Golden City,” Salamanca is an architectural masterpiece, built with a certain type of blond sandstone found in the deep quarries in the region of Castile-León. The stone in its pure form is a combination of creams and caramel colors that shine gold in the sunlight. After centuries of oxidation and exposure to the elements, though, the high-iron sandstones are deteriorating, giving the buildings and facades of Salamanca a distinctive reddish patina that dominates the aesthetic of the city today.

Recently, with quarries nearly depleted and fears mounting that their beloved city of gold is vulnerable, historians and scholars have been mobilizing to preserve, restore and protect Salamanca’s “Old City” with the help of the United Nations Educational Scientific and Culture Organization, or UNESCO.

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